The ABC of Cyber

Here we will have compiled the ABC of Cyber with some of the main cyber related terms and words which aims to support the understanding of cyber insurance and its related risks within this specialist sector.

Do you know the ABC of Cyber?

Antivirus Software

A program that monitors a computer or network to detect a malicious code and to prevent or manage malware incidents.

Access Control

This is ensuring that access to systems and files that individuals legitimately require access to in an organisation . It is important that when someone leaves an organisation their access should be removed  This is also know as the principle of least privilege with the intention to reduce the risk of data loss by unauthorized individuals.


This is a form of software that is written to reduce the amount of spam e-mail messages that a business may receive.


This is a software program written to perform a specific program. For example Word is a very well know word processing application.


This is the process by which an individual verifies themselves as a user to a  computer or electronic device which is carried out by a username and password.


These are copies of data and programs that can be used to replace files that have been lost , deleted or corrupted.These should be carried out on a regular basis ensuring that all important information and data are copied.


This is a method of authentification where a physical part of your body that is unique to an individual is used to access an electronic device such as iPhone. Examples of this are palm prints , scans  the retina of the eye and finger prints.


This is a form of crypto currency the origin of this is unlclear but believed to be someone called Satoshi Nakamoto.Each bitcoin can be split into 100 million units and are creating via cryptography and maths .There can only ever be 21 millin bitcoins.


This is the technology that is utilised to create cryptocurrency. Imagine. a bank account where every transaction is visible and can be tracked but with the owner remains unknown.

It is a series of transactions which contains details of what has been spent and what account it went to together with the date and time. This is encrypted in one block, further transactions are processed and each transaction has to be verified by all the other participants which makes fraud very difficult to take place.

Big Data

This is a broad term for data sets so large or complex that traditional data processing applications are inadequate. Challenges include analysis, capture,data curation, search, sharing, storage, transfer, visualization, and information privacy.


A network of computers that have been compromised and infected with malicious software and controlled by an outside adversary without the owner’s knowledge.

Booter Services

Where sites are battered with data to disrupt part of the internet’s infrastructure.


This relates to or characteristic of the culture of computers, information technology, and virtual reality


This is someone else’s computer where cloud services are provided by a range of companies where there are buildings providing servers which are being rented out. Servers therefore do not need to be managed and from a cost perspective this is attractive to businesses.

Cyber Attack

An attempt by hackers to damage or destroy a computer network or system.

Cyber Crime

This is a crime conducted via the Internet or some other computer network.

Cyber Security

The state of being protected against the criminal or unauthorized use of electronic data, or the measures taken to achieve this.

Cyber Space

An interactive domain made up of digital networks that is used to store, modify and communicate information.


The use of mathematical techniques to provide security such as data integrity , confidentiality and  entry authentication.


This is an electronic form of currency which is not regulated or monitored by banks rather governments. This’s utilises blockchain technology in order to validate each transaction.

Data Breach

The unauthorized access or disclosure of sensitive information to an entity normally outside of a business that is not permitted to see this information.


The process of transferring plain text to ciphertext


A capability to limit network traffic between networks and information systems


An unauthorized user who attempts to or gains access to an information system.

Malicious Code

A program code intended to perform an unauthorized  function or process that will have an adverse impact on the confidentiality , integrity or availability of an information system.

Internet of Things – is the network of physical objects or “things” embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects to collect and exchange data.

Penetration Testing

An evaluation process whereby assessors search for vulnerabilities  and attempt to circumvent  the security system of a network or information system.


A digital form of social engineering to deceive individuals into providing sensitive information.

Spear Phishing

An e-mail spoofing fraud attempt that targets a specific organization or individual seeking unauthorized access to confidential information.

Unauthorized Access   

Any access that violates a stated security policy.

Web Shells

A web shell is a script that can be uploaded to a web server to enable remote access of a computer.


A self-replicating , self contained program that uses networking mechanisms to spread itself.


We hope the ABC of Cyber helps expand your knowledge and we will be adding further to the ABC of Cyber from time to time.